Chicago Defender, February 10, 1917. The periodical the crackers least wanted sold on the streets of Bogalusa was the Defender itself, which was circulated down south by an ad hoc distribution network of Chicago-based Pullman porters. The Defender, the nation’s leading black paper, changed the demographic map of America with its editorial campaign to encourage black migration out of the South and into the industrializing northern cities, where better wages and relative freedom awaited. Southern business interests fought to retain their politically disempowered labor force with counter-propaganda that emphasized the harsh competitiveness of city life and the even harsher northern winters, which, it was claimed, killed black emigrants before their time.
(“Yaller” = yellow= very light-skinned.)