In 2007, median household income for Asian-Americans was $66,000, compared with $52,000 for European-Americans, $39,000 for Hispanic-Americans, and $34,000 for African-Americans. This likely is due in part to a striking difference in educational attainment between racial and ethnic groups: in 2003, 50 percent of Asian-Americans 25 or older had a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared with 30 percent of European-Americans, 17 percent of African-Americans, and 11 percent of Hispanic-Americans.

Asian-American students of all ages—especially those from the East Asian countries of China, Japan, and Korea—outperform their peers on standardized tests generally, and in math by wide margins. Researchers have come to call this the “Asian effect.”