Baltimore Afro-American, October 19, 1923. When black people started beating feet out of the agrarian South in favor of the northern industrial centers, the Southern establishment tried to stem the outbound tide of cheap labor with pseudo-Darwinian blather to the effect that northern winters were fatal to the African-American constitution. Black papers like the Chicago Defender and the Baltimore Afro-American were continually calling bullshit. How lucky were they to have a big white insurance firm affirm that even up North, black folks were living to the ripe old age of 56?