Avant-garde filmmakers usually work in 8- or 16-millimeter, but Ken Jacobs and Pat O?Neill use the greater detail of 35-millimeter to spectacular effect, producing an extraordinary visual poetry that explores the nature of seeing. In parts of Georgetown Loop (1997) and Disorient Express (1997), Jacobs takes footage shot from a moving train and prints it twice, running the images side by side with one frame upside-down; the doubling of the train?s movement produces a kaleidoscopic effect in which the image seems to grow, like an ever-renewing vision, out of the edge where the frames meet. O?Neill?s Trouble in the Image: Works on Film 1978-1995 (1996) collects his diverse explorations in optical printing—a process of frame-by-frame rephotography that allows him to combine and manipulate images. A mountain landscape appears through the window of a tenement, fragments of images fill human silhouettes—yet most of O?Neill?s effects are too complex to describe, a sure sign that he?s producing a cinema beyond translation. The contradictions in each image are difficult to resolve, pointing out the paradoxes of cinema and of perception itself.